An ectopic pregnancy (EP) is a condition in which a fertilized egg settles and grows in any location other than the inner lining of the uterus. The vast majority of ectopic pregnancies are so-called tubal pregnancies and occur in the Fallopian tube (98%); however, they can occur in other locations, such as the ovary, cervix, and abdominal cavity. An ectopic pregnancy occurs in about one in 50 pregnancies. The major health risk of ectopic pregnancy is rupture leading to internal bleeding. Before the 19th century, themortality rate (the death rate) from ectopic pregnancies exceeded 50%
Treatment options for ectopic pregnancy include observation, laparoscopy,laparotomy, and medication. Selection of these options is individualized. Some ectopic pregnancies will resolve on their own without the need for any intervention, while others will need urgent surgery due to life-threatening bleeding. However, because of the risk of rupture and potential dire consequences, most women with a diagnosed ectopic pregnancy are treated with medications or surgery.
For those who require intervention, the most common treatment is surgery. Two surgical options are available; laparotomy and laparoscopy. Laparotomy is an open procedure whereby a transverse (bikini line) incision is made across the lower abdomen. Laparoscopy involves inserting viewing instruments into the pelvis through tiny incisions in the skin. For many surgeons and patients, laparoscopy is preferred over laparotomy because of the tiny incisions used and the speedy recovery afterwards. Under optimal conditions, a small incision can be made in the Fallopian tube and the ectopic pregnancy removed, leaving the Fallopian tube intact. However, certain conditions make laparoscopy less effective or unavailable as an alternative. These include massive pelvic scar tissue and excessive blood in the abdomen or pelvis. In some instances, the location or extent of damage may require removal of a portion of the Fallopian tube, the entire tube, the ovary, and even the uterus.
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• Nursing care
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